Embryology is a branch of biology that deals with the development of an embryo from the fertilization of ovum to fetus stage. Embryology looks at the very beginning of life from the one-celled organism, egg or sperm. Embryologists examine fertilization and track the development of the embryo until it bears a resemblance to its progenitors. With the intention of giving hope to the hopeless, Embryology Training in India has witnessed a monumental progress and expansion.
The rate of infertility in couples is still pretty high. However, the optimistic part is that, even in India, more and more couples are ready to come out of the cocoon and seek for alternative reproductive methods. People are now less skeptical about the tabooed topic of infertility. And it is indeed another wonderful factor that the number of options for these couples has also increased. It is for this very reason that the demand for Embryology Training in India has increased exponentially.
Embryology Training in India is done in a very systematic manner. The usual structure of the syllabus is very modular and organized. The course structure is designed in such a manner that the embryologists get ample hands-on practice and lab-work in addition to the theoretical clarity.
A brief synopsis of what the syllabus of Embryology Training in India course structure would look like is outlined in the following steps.
1. Introduction to lab procedures, equipment and apparatus.
[Embryo Cleavage, Blastocytes and Culture Medium]
Embryo culture can either be performed in an artificial culture medium or in an autologous endometrial culture (on top of a layer of cells from the woman’s own uterine lining).
The duration of embryo culture can be varied, conferring different stages of embryogenesis at embryo transfer. The main stages at which embryo transfer is performed are known as cleavage stage (day 2 to 4 after co-incubation) or the blastocyst stage (day 5 or 6 after co-incubation).
2. Aliquoting, aseptic technique, drawn-out pipettes.
[Embryo selection, embryo replacement]
Embryo Selection is a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) technique that screens all the chromosomes in a developing embryo, enabling our scientists to select the embryo with the greatest likelihood of success.
The entire IVF cycle depends on delicate placement of the embryos at the proper location near the middle of the endometrial cavity – with minimal trauma and manipulation. The importance of proper embryo transfer technique for successful IVF cannot be overstated.
3. Sperm preparation: assessment, cryopreservation, preparation for IVF and ICSI stimulation protocols.
Cryopreservation or cryoconservation is a process where cells, whole tissues, or any other substances susceptible to damage caused by chemical reactivity or time are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures. Embryo cryopreservation during IVF treatment, allows for all of one’s eggs recovered that cycle, to be exposed to sperm. Not only does embryo cryopreservation maximize the chance of being able to transfer embryos of the highest quality through the process of selection after fertilization, but it also gives a couple the opportunities to freeze extra embryos for use in the future, if they are of good quality.
4. Forecast and setup for cases.
[Setting up an IVF lab]
5. Oocyte retrieval, grading of oocytes and insemination.
[Quality control and maintenance, record-keeping]
Oocyte pick-up is the process of collecting mature eggs, directly from a woman’s ovaries, prior to their release from ovarian follicles. The collection of mature oocytes is a prerequisite for IVF and other ART procedures, and thus, oocyte retrieval enables couples experiencing infertility to undergo ART and conceive.
Maintenance and record-keeping of this is of paramount importance for successful IVF and other such ART procedures.
6. ICSI: Alignment of injection needles and immobilization of sperm other micromanipulation techniques.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is an in-vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.)